Carol Brzozowski 2016-06-06 17:55:05
With a growing number of severe weather events, power outages are on the rise, notes Kyle Nelson, vertical marketing manager for Generac Power Systems. Summertime arrives with its notorious slate of challenges, with the Atlantic hurricane season spanning June 1 to November 30, heat waves that tax air-conditioning systems, and the possibility of tornadoes. “On top of weather-related events, we’re also consuming electricity on a much greater basis,” says Nelson. “Since 1990, we’ve increased the demand on the electricity grid by more than 400%. We’re demanding from our existing electricity grid in such a way that can cause outages that are completely unexpected.” While noting an increased investment in power transmission in the last decade, ongoing permitting issues, weather events, and limited maintenance have contributed to an increasing number of failures and power interruptions. “While demand for electricity has remained level, the availability of energy in the form of electricity, natural gas, and oil will become a greater challenge after 2020 as the population increases,” notes the ASCE. “Although about 17,000 miles of additional high-voltage transmission lines and significant oil and gas pipelines are planned over the next five years, permitting and siting issues threaten their completion.” Emergency backup power is critical for several reasons, notes Rick Traver, sales manager of emergency solutions for ESL Power Systems. One is loss of revenue for facilities such as gas stations and retail stores. “If you can’t operate while there’s no power, you’re losing revenue every day and that’s revenue you can’t get back,” points out Traver. Competitiveness is a second factor. “If you don’t have power to your building and can’t operate and your competitor does, you’re now giving your competitor the opportunity to convince your customers to stay with them,” he says. “On the psychological side, people will take notice that a place stays open in an emergency, so they’ll say, ‘I think I’ll shop there from now on.’” Some states have laws about emergency backup power. Florida, for example, mandates that banks and gas stations within a half-mile of a designated evacuation route have emergency power provisions, says Traver. “In case of an emergency if power were to go out for a number of days, at least people can get fuel and get money from the bank,” he says, adding the law was inspired by previous hurricanes in which one of the largest challenges people faced in the aftermath was the inability to get money or gasoline for their vehicles. “In areas where there is a higher incidence of weather-related emergencies, more businesses are coming to the realization that having emergency power backup provisions is just smart business,” notes Traver. “Not only in certain cases is there a loss of revenue, but in many cases it is loss of inventory. If you’re a gas station with a convenience store, it’s not only the fact that you can’t pump gas, but if you don’t have power, you’re going to lose inventory in your store.” Those who operate facilities are becoming increasingly aware that whatever the cost of an emergency power backup system is, “one incident is going to pay for it,” says Traver. “It makes good economic sense,” he adds. “Whatever it costs you to put the system in, the loss of revenue and inventory is probably twice as much as it was to just install the system. Not doing it is much more risky than actually putting one in.” Tom Vagts, business development manager at MTU Onsite Energy concurs that local codes and regulations drive requirements for emergency backup power. “Once a building reaches a certain size, it’s more economical to use a backup generator than to purchase batteries for use in light fixtures,” he says. “It’s advisable for facility owners to have generators on hand during summertime threats to ensure minimal to no loss of product/time, no data loss, and no missed shipping deadlines.” Todd Howe, manager of global generator products for Doosan Portable Power, points out that aside from having equipment to deal with emergencies, facility owners and operators need a plan. “Know what you need; have studies done of your facility and its power needs; evaluate what you can live with and what you can live without during the duration of an outage,” he says. “Try to predict what the impact would be if the facility found itself affected by one of those types of events and for a certain duration of time, how long could it continue before getting back to normal?” Risk tolerance is an important factor. “The tolerance for risk for a very power-critical installation like a data center or a hospital is going to be extremely low, and their investment in contingencies is going to be extremely high,” says Howe. “Other businesses may be able to ride out an outage without power or be able to go through a period of shutdown during an event. Their tolerance is considerably higher.” Companies such as Generac Power Systems offer a no-cost power risk assessment for small companies relating to the type of business they’re in and the area in which they operate. The company provides outage data tracked on a daily basis to offer risk insights. Equipment distributors not only provide equipment, but can also serve as consultants for facility operators in making appropriate choices, says Howe. It’s important that all stakeholders are aligned and aware of the emergency plan and their respective responsibilities “because having the event occur and not knowing who’s doing what is a recipe for disaster,” says Howe. “Most of our end users rent mobile generators through a contingency plan supporting an installation that may not be mission-critical on power needs, but they’ll have a rental agreement with a power provider whose responsibility is to make sure that the facility has a generator when it’s required.” In situations such as hurricanes where there is advanced warning, in the days prior to its making landfall, the contingency contract would trigger the power provider to bring a generator to the facility and prepare to operate it. That includes getting it interconnected, conducting testing, and ensuring a fueling agreement is in place that gives the end-user sufficient fuel to either ride out the duration of the outage or have somebody prepared to continue to refuel the machine during the outage. The rental clock starts when the unit is called into play, Howe says. “Rather than making a massive investment in permanent infrastructure, in this instance, the customer is buying a form of an insurance policy,” he adds. In contrast, a mission-critical facility such as a data center requires uninterrupted power. “In that situation, revenue loss is measured in millions of dollars per hour, so they’ll have no tolerance for that amount of uncertainty in exchange for a reduced investment,” notes Howe. “A data center is going to more likely invest in permanent infrastructure that’s in the facility as well as backup to the permanent infrastructure and maybe even have a third layer, which might be the contingency plan just to back up the backup.” For facilities in areas where natural disasters are a seasonal event and require less effort in advance preparation, it’s easier to take a risk with a contingency plan, notes Howe, adding contingency planning is common in the country’s “hurricane alley” area that includes Florida and the Gulf coast. “In other areas where situations may be little bit more unpredictable or more frequent, that’s where permanent infrastructure starts to become something a lot more palatable to facilities,” he adds. An agreement with a rental company doesn’t ensure one’s facility is prepared to accept the backup power in an event, notes Howe. “There needs to be some level of infrastructure investment on behalf of the firm in order to be prepared to tie in a rental generator set,” he says. “You have to have electrical infrastructure to safely connect the generator to your facility and more importantly, safely disconnect it from the utility source. “You don’t want to be in a situation in which you might backfeed the generator power into the utility and put people who are trying to restore utility service in harm’s way of potentially being backfed with the power from the generator,” he adds. Generac has a suggested business continuity plan for power outages. Preparing for an Outage • Create a communication plan. List employees, their phone numbers, and e-mail addresses. Establish a preferred method of communication (call, text, or e-mail). Include emergency contact numbers. • List key stakeholders and who contacts whom. Include necessary external contacts such as suppliers, contractors, and consultants. Consider critical business functions and create a plan for backing up these functions in the event of an outage. • Identify necessary files and records needed to continue operation. Back up and copy files and records frequently. Securely store them with retrieval and recovery procedures in place, and review and update periodically for validity. • Prepare an easily accessible outage/disaster supply kit that includes flashlights, a battery-powered or hand-crank radio and a NOAA Weather Radio, extra batteries for flashlights and radios, and a first aid kit. In case a building cannot be evacuated, have on hand 1 gallon of water per person per day for at least three days and a three-day supply of non-perishable food. • Consolidate all plan aspects into a readily available single document. • Make the plan available to all employees who may be present at the time of an outage and periodically review it. Practice the business continuity plan in a controlled setting on a recurring basis. Make any necessary modifications to respond to changes throughout the year. It is important to make sure the plan is always up to date. What to Do During an Outage • Verify everyone in the facility is safe and can find an exit. • Check utility breakers for any potential trips and reset if necessary. • Contact the utility company about the outage and obtain an estimated duration. • Contact any necessary external contacts if extended outage is expected. • Refer to backup plans in the “critical business functions” section for additional steps depending on the duration of the outage. Points to Consider • Can your business operate remotely if you have a secondary location identified in the event that your current location is inoperable? • Can employees telecommute while still keeping the business operational? • Will additional people be needed to keep the business operational? If so, who are these people and how are they contacted? • At what point does it make sense to send employees home versus keeping them on location if the power is out? Keep in mind the time of day the power goes out. Is it nearly the end of the workday anyway, or did the workday just begin? Consider the estimated duration of the outage: Does it make sense to keep employees at the facility if the outage is only going to last one to two hours? What about four to six hours? • Are there productive activities/tasks employees can accomplish onsite during an outage, or will everyone simply be waiting for the power to return? • What does it cost to pay employees to be onsite if the business is not operational due to the outage? What does it cost to shut the business down for the day with the potential for power to come back on? • Can the business continue with employees onsite? Or can it operate remotely through either an alternative site or employees working from home? Critical Business Functions • Identify all functions, processes, equipment, and other factors crucial for business continuity. • Record the tolerable period of time each function, process, and equipment can be down without power before affecting business operation. • Create a backup. A plan should be practiced often, says Nelson. “The time to find out you have flaws in your plan is on a nice 70-degree [Fahrenheit] sunny day when the stress levels are low and nothing else is going on,” he says. “You don’t want to find out you have a fault in your plan when you encounter an event, because then you can’t do anything about it. Stress levels are high, tension is high, and you’re not always able to overcome those flaws.” By white-boarding out various “what if” scenarios and narrowing them down to what’s most realistic and what the business can accept for risk, “then it starts pointing in the direction of what kind of infrastructure and contingencies the facility may need to have in order for it to be able to get through an event like that,” says Howe. “From a standby standpoint, you need to consider what are the critical roles you want to carry,” says Nagle. “In the event of an outage, maybe you don’t need to back up your entire facility and spend that kind of money. A standby genset is an insurance policy—you want to be careful about how much you’re going to spend, so you may want to have somebody like an engineer look at your facility. There are critical pieces of equipment and critical lighting that needs power and the rest you can go without.” There are a number of options. Generac Power Systems recently introduced the 500-kW natural gas genset, the largest unit in the company’s spark-ignited industrial generator line. The unit is powered by a 25.8 L, 12-cylinder Generac engine that is turbocharged and after-cooled, producing a standby power rating of 500 kW and prime power rating of 450 kW. The unit is designed for large standby power applications such as office buildings and mission-critical data centers and can be installed as a single engine generator set or as part of Generac’s Modular Power Systems if generator paralleling is required for increased reliability, redundancy, flexibility, and scalability for future growth. Other features include PowerManager digital controls, providing access to constant monitoring capabilities, built-in protective alarms, and isochronous speed control designed for increased accuracy and optional GenLink remote monitoring software. The engine is rated 809 hp at 1,800 rpm and comes in a sound-absorbing enclosure. The natural gas unit is designed for markets in which diesel fuel quality is low or in limited supply, says Russ Minick, executive vice president of NAM sales for Generac Power Systems. “The demand for larger, clean-burning industrial generators continues to grow worldwide,” he adds. “Natural gas is a continuous, highly reliable fuel source even in the most common emergency situations. Additionally, it is recognized as a clean-burning fuel that easily meets EPA clean air standards.” Lower fuel costs and reduced maintenance can make it a more cost-effective choice as well, says Minick. Generac Power Systems also offers a bifuel generator. “The benefit of bifuel is risk mitigation when it comes to fuel strategy,” says Nelson. “Bifuel starts up on diesel fuel, and as it starts accepting load from the facility, it switches over and adds more natural gas to the system until it’s running primarily on natural gas. You have the reliable supply of natural gas fuel, and you’re extending how long the diesel fuel can last.” Fairbanks Morse has engine genset applications 2–20 MW that are used for emergency standby, peak shaving, and prime movers. The units are offered in diesel, dual-fuel, and spark-ignited gas applications. Jeff Powell, Fairbanks Morse’s product manager, says, “it’s better to have the equipment installed permanently, mostly because you can have all of the auxiliaries and components there. As soon as the power does go out due to a natural disaster or such, you have the response of the electricity being restored immediately instead of having to wait to bring portable units in on site. It means getting the power back up and people out of harm’s way.” Powell says reciprocating engines are better in emergencies than renewable power such as wind and solar, which he says are unreliable during weather events. “Wind power is not stable during hurricanes and tornadoes,” he says. “They have to shut down the wind towers because of high winds. Solar gets damaged during tornadoes and hurricanes and usually the sun is not out during those times.” Powell recommends dual-fuel systems for emergency applications for the flexibility offered. “You can run on natural gas, which is much cheaper than straight diesel fuel, but in hurricanes and tornadoes and such, natural gas could be wiped out, and it still allows the engine to be run on straight diesel fuel, which can easily be trucked in if need be,” he says. Reciprocating engines as part of standby power in an emergency generator set are viewed as insurance policies,” says Christopher Nagle, general manager of the engine business in North America for Dresser-Rand, a Siemens business. It’s the least-expensive solution for when the power goes out in a power-critical facility, he says, adding: “The standby genset starts up, delivers power, and when the utility comes back on, it automatically shuts off and then the plant is running on utility.” Weather events such as Superstorm Sandy “spurred a lot of thinking about a new perspective on CHP, where not only is properly applied CHP going to save you money, but you may be potentially able to use it as power in the event the utility goes out,” says Nagle. Case in point: Wesleyan University in Connecticut. The institution installed in its athletic facility a CHP system powered by a Guascor engine not only to serve as a primary heat source and save money on gas and electricity usage, but also to prevent power failures such as the university experienced when the campus was without power for a week after Superstorm Sandy. The installation was made possible through a Connecticut program that provides grants to state organizations investing in microgrid or distributed energy projects. Wesleyan was the first in Connecticut to be approved for a microgrid project and was the only applicant that proposed a CHP solution, notes Nagle. Commissioned in March 2014, the 676-kW electric system provides hot water for basic services, keeps the pool temperature at 80°F, and heats the hundreds of gallons of 150°F water needed for the building’s ice rink, he says. “The Guascor engine helps Wesleyan optimize the energy potential of the facility by combining heating with onsite power generation,” says Nagle, adding the system provides steam, generated from the engine’s exhaust, to the campus, and generates electricity onsite.” Dresser-Rand was recently named the exclusive supplier of Guascor gas engines for Kohler Power Systems’ new line of large gas generator sets. Fuel source is an important component of emergency backup systems. “There are some locations in some parts of the country where there could be an extended outage, and it’s going to be difficult to get a fuel truck in there to deliver either propane or diesel, so you may want to look at natural gas,” says Nagle. “You have to match it up against what kinds of natural disasters you may see,” he adds. “You have to weigh your options if you want to consider CHP as a source of power when the utility is not there. Electrical loads have to be balanced. In CHP, you’re typically sizing for electric, so you want to get the most efficient engine you can find. The tradeoff is these highly efficient engines don’t accept variation of loads too well. When the power goes out at the plant and the CHP plant comes on and you’re throwing all of this equipment on it, that’s a lot of load variation. You may find that the electrical efficiency isn’t so important and you can go with a less efficient CHP plant that will do a better job handling some of the variations and loads should the power go out. It’s balancing what you’re trying to do to the CHP in the event of an outage with the engine’s efficiency and performance.” ESL Power Systems provides equipment designed to be used for connecting portable generators to a facility for an easy means of providing power in case of an emergency. “In the old days, if you were trying to hook up a portable generator without a means of quick connecting them, a certified electrician would have to show up, open up your distribution panel, and hardwire in the cables from the portable generator directly into your building through your main distribution panel,” points out Traver. “That can prove to be problematic in an emergency when certified electricians can be few and far between and tied up on all kinds of things,” he adds. The benefit of a quick connect means anyone is capable of addressing the power emergency without a need for a certified electrician, notes Traver. ESL Power Systems provides equipment with the proper UL listing needed for transferring power between two sources, which is different than transferring current between two sources, says Traver. An Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) is installed when there is an onsite permanent generator connected to a building. If the power goes out, the ATS senses a loss of current, sends a signal to the permanent generator to start up, and gets enough amperage going. The ATS senses that buildup of amperage and switches the power automatically from the utility coming in to the permanent generator, all within a few minutes, Traver points out. Currently, ESL’s three main emergency power products are all UL listed at various maximum amperages. StormSwitch, the manual transfer switch, is offered up to 3,000, amps and is UL/cUL 1008-listed up to 2,000 amps. It is equipped with safety interlocks, and color-coded, cam-style receptacles. ESL’s TempTap is a portable generator connection box that ranges up to 3,200 amps and is UL/cUL 1008-listed to 1,600 amps. The inlet boxes are designed to provide end users with a safe and simple solution to connect a portable generator to a facility with an existing manual or automatic transfer switch. It’s installed by a licensed electrician and provides a temporary connection to a portable generator with color-coded cam-style receptacles. ESL’s TripleSwitch is a three-way manual transfer switch that ranges to 3,000 amps and is UL/cUL 1008 listed to 800 amps. “It enables a facility that has a permanent generator and an automatic transfer switch to easily and cost-effectively load bank test the permanent generator and have provisions for pulling up a portable generator in case the permanent generator would have to go down for long-term maintenance or potentially fail during an emergency situation,” says Traver. ESL uses circuit breakers that are mechanically interlocked. With the mechanical interlock, “you can’t backfeed the system because of the way it’s designed—you can’t allow two breakers to be on at the same time,” says Traver. “When the utility power is restored, the emergency power is still going to go to the building and the utility power is not and vice versa.” Once a generator is on site and hooked up, the next consideration is how big of a fuel tank is needed. Facility operators should consider how often they will have to refill the generator and how long will it run. “There are some who have a building that requires 2,000 amps to run the whole facility, but in case of an emergency, they have selected certain components that have to run and certain others that they can do without,” says Traver. “They may only run half the lighting. Certain machinery may not be needed to run. Does it matter if this is going to be a one-day outage, or is this going to be a one-week outage?” Fuel—whether for permanent or rental backup power—is the driving factor behind how much additional time a facility can run in a power outage. “As long as the business has a contingency supply of fuel available, contingency power systems can run 24 hours a day for extended lengths of time,” points out David Scott, vice president of Power & HVAC for United Rentals. The company will often facilitate an end-user’s arrangements with fuel vendors to ensure a reliable supply of fuel in a disaster. Generac’s generators operate off of three types of fuel: gaseous, diesel, and bifuel. The choice is sometimes co-driven where onsite diesel fuel is required, says Nelson. “Other times, it comes down to the importance on what you’re trying to accomplish with a backup system. One difference would be if you have enough onsite diesel fuel to last for 24 to 48 hours.” One consideration in a facility’s preparedness plan is how a tank is going to be refueled, Nelson points out. He adds that Superstorm Sandy was an example of how power can be out for a few weeks, so it’s necessary to have enough fuel on hand to avoid having the power go out again because the generator runs out of fuel. “It sometimes can be more difficult than it sounds, because if the weather event is knocking out the grid and knocks down trees, sometimes your mode of transportation is limited as well; so getting a fuel truck to your facility can be a challenge,” he adds. Nelson says fuel sourcing is not as much of a concern for natural gas-powered generators. “You don’t have to worry about refueling because you have that reliable supply of fuel ongoing and you have longer run times,” he says. Standby generators can be grouped into two general categories—life safety and security, and business continuity for loss protection, notes Scott. To meet life safety and security objectives, building regulations or business law may require a standby generator permanently installed onsite, he points out. “With respect to business continuity, the determining factor is the estimation of potential financial risk compared to the cost of the protection,” says Scott. “For example, a movie theater may opt not to invest in a standby generator, whereas a large data warehouse may feel it’s essential to make the investment so as not to interrupt the flow of mission-critical information, even if power outages are infrequent.” Doosan Portable Power’s products are predominantly designed for temporary installation or temporary use. United Rentals Power and HVAC offers an alternative solution to capital investment by providing contingency temporary power designed around a specific end user’s needs. It can involve both planned and unplanned utility interruptions. In either case, a cost is incurred only when the equipment is utilized. “It’s a myth that you have to carry the costs of idle equipment just to ensure that it will be available in a disaster,” says Scott, adding that United Rentals’ power and HVAC services include pre-planning for disaster recovery to ensure equipment will be available on demand while dramatically reducing the total cost of ownership, including capital allocation and ongoing costs for insurance, storage, safety training, maintenance, service, and parts. Whether a facility owner or operator should rent or purchase a backup power system depends on the company’s backup strategy, Nelson points out. “Some facility managers or owners will say they don’t necessarily need instant power recovery, but they do want backup power, so if they have refrigerated goods, that may be OK for a few hours, but they don’t want it to go for a few days,” he adds. There are buy and rent strategies for mobile units, Nelson says. It may not make sense for a business with numerous facilities onsite to have multiple installed generators, he adds. “You can have a mobile strategy if you have 10 facilities,” he says. “You deploy mobile generators based on the location of the outage, and if the outage does happen to cover all of your facilities, you can deploy those mobile generators to use most strategic locations.” Proper sizing for a generator is best done by a local distributor or dealer who can conduct a facility walk-through. There are four distinct levels of backup, Nelson notes. The most common is no backup in which facility inhabitants wait for power to be restored. Another is an orderly shutdown in which a generator is in place, but only a limited number of circuits are backed up to allow facility operators safe shut down of any sensitive equipment, avoiding damage to that equipment—such as cash registers or computers. In this option, the facility is being shut down safely, but is not operational. A third option is a limited operation, in which a generator allows partial equipment operation, but not full productivity. “At a gas station and convenience store, you can back up half the pumps and maybe the refrigeration and security system with limited lighting. So you can still stay operational during that outage, but not at full capacity,” says Nelson. A fourth option is to be fully operational in which the generator is backing up everything. Vagts says facility operators can contact a local MTU distributor through www.mtuonsiteenergy.com/find-a-dealer for help selecting the right solution that will meet the many installation factors, building codes, electrical codes, emissions, and fuel storage issues. The selection and sizing of a standby generator or a pre-planned rental generator is a collaborative effort including the facility owner and either a power engineer or an electrical engineer, notes Scott. “Ultimately, a joint recommendation is made based on the facility’s function and a feasibility study, considering the needs of all the various stakeholders,” he says. “The generator alone is not a complete solution. All of the critical decisions are agreed to in advance, such as automatic transfer switches and diesel or natural gas fuel.” Depending on the facility—office building, industrial plant, data center, or another type—the power produced by a standby generator can be rated to carry as much as the entire electrical load or limited to life safety and basic building functionality, says Scott. “The standby power itself can be triggered almost instantaneously, but the sizing and design determines how much of the facility is online or offline for the outage period,” he adds. Some factors affecting how much backup power is needed include the cost of owning the generator and the human impact of a powerless building, notes Scott. “For example, when comparing an inpatient hospital to an elementary school, the human cost of a hospital without power is obviously much more severe than with a school, where the children can be sent home,” he adds. Maintenance and testing help ensure a reliable operation of fixed generators, which require periodic visual inspections and annual full-duty load testing similar to boilers, water-cooled chillers, air-cooled chillers, and other types of primary mechanical equipment, says Scott. “Weekly visual inspections should include checking for hose and connection leaks, taking the oil temperature, and recording operating pressure and temperature gauges, particularly in extreme climates,” he adds. Also on a weekly basis, the generator should be energized for 15 to 30 minutes to ensure safe and proper performance, says Scott, adding that annual best practices include a full-load operational test for more than four hours, and the replacement of engine oil, oil filters, and fuel filters. While generator manufacturers offer service contracts for maintenance and testing activities, an independent generator service company is another option. United Rentals Power & HVAC takes care of maintenance, load testing, and safety checks on its rented equipment. “We highly recommend that generators are tested monthly under load. The owner should follow the manufacturer’s maintenance schedule and hire a certified generator technician to perform all maintenance and service,” says Vagts, adding that MTU Onsite Energy’s distributors offer long-term maintenance contracts. Powell points out that the more a facility operator keeps up maintenance per manufacturer’s specifications, the better the engine is going to be ready to go at a moment’s notice. “The worst thing you can do to engines is just let them sit without doing continual maintenance runs and running them on a periodic basis to make sure they’re lubricated and everything is up and running correctly and operating well,” he adds. Placement of backup systems is an important lesson many facilities learned during Hurricane Sandy, when flooding in some facilities rendered backup equipment located in basements inoperative. In some cases, rooftop installations may be optimal placement, says Nelson. “All of your electrical distribution equipment to your facility also needs to be raised up as well. Because if all of that is in the basement and the generator is on the roof, it does no good, because all of your other equipment is going to get flooded out and not work properly either,” says Nelson. “You have to look at the entire system and not just the generator.” Generac has Multiple Power Systems in which multiple generators are run parallel to provide the full facility load. “Sometimes the benefit on rooftop installs is when, instead of one large generator, you’re breaking that down into a few smaller generators, and you’re distributing that load across the entire rooftop and not stressing one part over another,” says Nelson. “You can also install a generator outside or next to a facility on a raised platform if flooding is a concern.” As for rental backup power, Howe says he has seen facilities where a rental company brings in a machine that gets called into use and no one gave thought about its placement. “It would be in the way of operations. They don’t have cable ready to go. They don’t have an electrician ready to do the interconnect,” he says. “They didn’t think of everything it takes to make that generator ready to do its job for the facility.” BE Carol Brzozowski specializes in topics related to energy and technology.
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